MySQL 运维常用工具&命令

兰春 2019-10-25

云栖社区 数据存储与数据库 系统研发与运维 mysql SQL 配置 BY 索引 Group

以下列出的是平常工作中用到的小工具和命令


连接

  • 如何不需要密码的登录,直接mysql
my.cnf  或者写在 ~/.my.cnf, 相对安全

[mysql]  --表示: 只有mysql命令才能免密码
user=root
password=123
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
 
[mysqladmin] --表示: 只有mysqladmin命令才能免密码
user=root
password=123
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock


[mysqldump] --表示: 只有mysqldump命令才能免密码
user=root
password=123
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock

[client]   --表示:只要是客户端的命令,都是可以免密码的
user=root
password=123
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock

MySQL如何查看用户名密码

  • MySQL5.7.6之前
1. show grants for $user;

2. select host,user,Password from user;

  • MySQL5.7.6+
1. select host,user,authentication_string,password_lifetime,password_expired,password_last_changed from mysql.user where user='lc_rx';

information_schema相关

如何在线kill掉满足某种条件的session

DB_SYS: perl /home/Keithlan/scripts/outage/kill_connection/kill_sleepconn_by_opt.pl -opt $opt

PROCESSLIST

  • 分析出当前连接过来的客户端ip的分布情况
select substring_index(host,':', 1) as appip ,count(*) as count from information_schema.PROCESSLIST group by appip order by count desc ;
  • 分析处于Sleep状态的连接分布情况
select substring_index(host,':', 1) as appip ,count(*) as count from information_schema.PROCESSLIST where COMMAND='Sleep' group by appip order by count desc ;
  • 分析哪些DB访问的比较多
select DB ,count(*) as count from information_schema.PROCESSLIST where COMMAND='Sleep' group by DB order by count desc ;
  • 分析哪些用户访问的比较多
select user ,count(*) as count from information_schema.PROCESSLIST where COMMAND='Sleep' group by user order by count desc ;

TABLES

  • 列出大于10G以上的表
select TABLE_SCHEMA,TABLE_NAME,TABLE_ROWS,ROUND((INDEX_LENGTH+DATA_FREE+DATA_LENGTH)/1024/1024/1024) as size_G from information_schema.tables where ROUND((INDEX_LENGTH+DATA_FREE+DATA_LENGTH)/1024/1024/1024) > 10 order by size_G desc ;

performance_schema相关

performance_schema占用多少内存

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/show-engine.html
SHOW ENGINE PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA STATUS;
For the Performance Schema as a whole, performance_schema.memory is the sum of all the memory used (the sum of all other memory values).

performance_schema 瓶颈

1) SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'perf%';
2) SHOW STATUS LIKE 'perf%';
3) SHOW ENGINE PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA STATUS\G

详细细节:http://keithlan.github.io/2015/07/17/22_performance_schema/

如何查看每个threads当前session变量的值


select * from performance_schema.variables_by_thread as a,(select THREAD_ID,PROCESSLIST_ID,PROCESSLIST_USER,PROCESSLIST_HOST,PROCESSLIST_COMMAND,PROCESSLIST_STATE from performance_schema.threads where PROCESSLIST_USER<>'NULL') as b where a.THREAD_ID = b.THREAD_ID and a.VARIABLE_NAME = 'sql_safe_updates'

TOP SQL 相关

能够解决什么问题: 可以找到某个表是否还有业务访问?
能够解决什么问题: 可以确定某个库,某个表的业务是否迁移干净?
能够解决什么问题: 可以用于分析业务是否异常?
能够解决什么问题: 根据TopN 可以分析压力?
能够解决什么问题: 可以用于分析哪些表是热点数据,这些TopN的表才是值得优化的表。只要每一条语句快0.01ms,那么1亿条呢?

实例中: 求SQL

  • 一个实例中查询最多的TopN SQL
select SCHEMA_NAME,DIGEST_TEXT,COUNT_STAR,FIRST_SEEN,LAST_SEEN  from performance_schema.events_statements_summary_by_digest where DIGEST_TEXT like 'select%' and DIGEST_TEXT not like '%SESSION%' order by COUNT_STAR desc limit 10\G
  • 一个实例中写入最多的TopN SQL
select SCHEMA_NAME,DIGEST_TEXT,COUNT_STAR,FIRST_SEEN,LAST_SEEN  from performance_schema.events_statements_summary_by_digest where DIGEST_TEXT like 'insert%' or DIGEST_TEXT like 'update%'or DIGEST_TEXT like 'delete%' or DIGEST_TEXT like 'replace%'  order by COUNT_STAR desc limit 10\G

库中: 求SQL

  • 一个库中查询最多的TopN SQL
同上 实例中: 求SQL
  • 一个库中写入最多的TopN SQL
同上 实例中: 求SQL

实例中:求table

  • 使用说明
usage: perl xx.pl -i 192.168.1.10 -p 3306 -e read|write|all 2>/dev/null ;
opt e:
 read       get select count
 write      get insert,update,delete count
 all        get all sql count
opt i:
  192.xx.xx.xx  ip address
opt p:
  3306          db port
  • 查看一个实例中,哪个表的SQL语句 访问最多?
DB_SYS: perl get_table_from_sql.pl -i $ip -p $port -e all 2> /dev/null
  • 查看一个实例中,哪个表的SQL语句 select【读】最多?
DB_SYS: perl get_table_from_sql.pl -i $ip -p $port -e read 2> /dev/null
  • 查看一个实例中,哪个表的SQL语句 insert+update+delete+replace【写】最多?
DB_SYS: perl get_table_from_sql.pl -i $ip -p $port -e write 2> /dev/null

Table IO 相关的监控

库级别

  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的all latency时间最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(SUM_TIMER_READ) as all_read_time,sum(SUM_TIMER_WRITE) as all_write_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_time  desc;
  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的read latency时间最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(SUM_TIMER_READ) as all_read_time,sum(SUM_TIMER_WRITE) as all_write_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_read_time  desc;
  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的write latency时间最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(SUM_TIMER_READ) as all_read_time,sum(SUM_TIMER_WRITE) as all_write_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_write_time  desc;
  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的总访问量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_star  desc;
  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的查询量(除了select中的fetchs外,还包括update,delete过程中的fetchs)最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_read  desc;
  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的写入量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_write  desc;
  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的update量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_update  desc;
  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的insert量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_insert  desc;
  • 如何查看一个MySQL实例中哪个库的delete量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,sum(SUM_TIMER_WAIT) as all_time,sum(COUNT_STAR) as all_star,sum(COUNT_read) as all_read ,sum(COUNT_WRITE) as all_write,sum(COUNT_FETCH) as all_fetch,sum(COUNT_INSERT) as all_insert,sum(COUNT_UPDATE) as all_update,sum(COUNT_DELETE) as all_delete  from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table   group by OBJECT_SCHEMA order by all_delete  desc;

表级别

  • 表的all latency时间(read + write)最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,SUM_TIMER_READ,SUM_TIMER_WRITE,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by SUM_TIMER_WAIT desc  limit 10
  • 表的read latency(fetch)时间最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,SUM_TIMER_READ,SUM_TIMER_WRITE,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by SUM_TIMER_READ desc  limit 10
  • 表的write latency 时间最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,SUM_TIMER_READ,SUM_TIMER_WRITE,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by SUM_TIMER_WRITE desc  limit 10
  • 表的rows 总访问量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by COUNT_STAR  desc  limit 10
  • 表的rows 查询量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by  COUNT_read desc  limit 10
  • 表的rows 写入量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by  COUNT_WRITE desc  limit 10
  • 表的rows update量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by  COUNT_update desc  limit 10
  • 表的rows insert量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by  COUNT_insert desc  limit 10
  • 表的rows delete量最大
select OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME,SUM_TIMER_WAIT,COUNT_STAR,COUNT_read,COUNT_WRITE,COUNT_UPDATE,COUNT_insert,COUNT_delete from performance_schema.table_io_waits_summary_by_table  order by  COUNT_delete desc  limit 10

抓包





* tshark 中的 -e参数有哪些内容请参考
    http://www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref/
    https://www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref/m/mysql.html
    https://www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref/t/tcp.html
    https://www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref/m/memcache.html
    https://www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref/h/http.html



* tshark: 抓取mysql tcp包,以及大小
    tshark -i any -R 'tcp.port == 3306 && mysql' -T fields -e tcp.port -e ip.addr -e mysql.query  -e mysql.packet_length -e tcp.len
    tshark 高级版本将 -R 替换成了 -Y

* tshark: 抓mysql包
tshark -i any dst host ${ip} and dst port 3306 -l -d tcp.port==3306,mysql -T fields -e frame.time -e 'ip.src'  -e 'mysql.query' > yy.tshark  --这种方式,会在/tmp/目录下创建很多临时文件,要小心,会产生磁盘报警。

* tshark -i any dst host ${ip} and dst port 3306 -l -d tcp.port==3306,mysql -T fields -e 'ip.src' -e 'tcp.srcport' -e 'mysql.schema'  -e 'mysql.query' -w yy.tshark  --类似于tcpdump。

nohup tshark -i any dst host ${ip} and dst port 3306 -l -d tcp.port==3306,mysql -a duration:20  -T fields -e mysql.schema -e frame.time -e ip.src -e tcp.srcport -e mysql.query -w xx.sql &  -- -a duration 当时间超过 20秒时,停止抓取。  


nohup tshark -i any dst host ${ip} and dst port 3306 -l -d tcp.port==3306,mysql -a filesize:2000000 -T fields -e mysql.schema -e frame.time -e ip.src -e tcp.srcport -e mysql.query -w xx.sql &     注:当文件超过2G时,停止抓取。单位是Kilobyte。

* 只抓取MySQL的包,不会有空格之类的了
tshark -i any dst host ${ip} and dst port 3306 -l -a duration:10 -R 'mysql.query' -T fields -e 'ip.src'  -e 'mysql.query'


==from gitlab http://gitlab.corp.anjuke.com/_incubator/knowledge/blob/master/tshark.md


* thark:解tcpdump包
tshark -r xx.tcpdump -d tcp.port==3306,mysql -T fields -e mysql.schema  -e frame.time -e ip.src -e mysql.query  > test.tshark


* 案例一、 memcache
    # 需要使用 -d 让 tshark 认为 11213 是使用的 memcache 协议,否则 tshark 默认是将 11211 认为是 memcache 协议
    ~ tshark -i eth0 -d tcp.port==11213,memcache -R 'tcp.dstport == 11213 && memcache'

* 案例二、 mysql
    ~ tshark -i eth0 -R 'tcp.port == 3306 && mysql.query' -T fields -e frame.time -e 'ip.src'  -e 'mysql.query'

* 案例三、http
    ~ tshark -i eth0 -R 'tcp.port == 80 && http'

    # 这个命令非常有用,当我们的程序非常慢,但是有没有打印任何日志时,我们怀疑可能是某个 http 请求慢了,可以用这个命令检查
    # http.time 表示整个 http请求 消耗的时间
    # http.response.code 200、403、500 等
    # tcp.analysis.initial_rtt tcp 三次握手时间
    # tcp.stream tshark 针对每一个5元组,都有一个编号,根据这个编号,可以方便的查到整个会话过程的所有请求 src.ip,src.port,tcp,dst.ip,dst.port,例如在这里,可以根据这个编号,找到请求所对应的 http.response.code ,因为在并发很高的时候,2个记录不一定紧挨着

    ~ tshark -i eth0 -R 'http && tcp.port == 80' -T fields -e tcp.analysis.initial_rtt -e frame.time -e ip.addr -e tcp.port -e http.request.uri -e tcp.stream -e http.response.code -e http.time

* 案例四、tcp
    # 检查是否有tcp 包重传
    ~ tshark -i eth0 -R 'tcp.analysis.retransmission'

slow query优化--切忌:不要在master进行分析和调优,在没有业务的机器上或者etl上分析诊断

1) 先搞清楚时间到底花在哪里&&为什么时间会花在那  (show profile)
   1.1 ) 主要工具和方法就是profiling
   1.2 ) 整个性能优化,应该花90%的时间在测量上面,只有这样才能够对症下药
   1.3 ) 通过show profile 可以知道,时间都花在哪里
   1.4 )通过session级别的status,可以知道为什么时间会花在那里
       flush status;
       select xx from tt where ff ;
       show status where variable_name like 'Handler%' or Variable_name like 'Created%';

2) 完成一项任务的时间分两个部分  执行时间和等待时间
   如何优化执行时间呢 --比较简单?
   2.1) 降低子任务数量
   2.2) 降低子任务的执行频率
   2.3) 提升子任务的执行效率并且判断任务在什么时间执行最长

   如何优化等待时间呢 --比较复杂?
   2.4) 一般是由于资源竞争导致,要用合适的工具找到竞争点。
       2.5) 判断任务在什么地方被阻塞的时间最长。


3) 通过slow,可以找到值得优化的SQL
   awk '/^# Time:/{print $3, $4, c;c=0}/^# User/{c++}' dbbak10-001-slow.log    --可以统计出每个时间点的slow 数量,精度比较细
3.1) 执行总时间最多的SQL
3.2) 单条SQL执行时间最多的SQL

4) 三种轻量级别的SQL抓取  show processlist  &  tcpdump  & slow-query   解析工具可以用:pt-query-digest 解析tcpdump和slow query
   msyql -e 'show proceslist\G' | grep State: | sort | uniq -c | sort -rn     --轻量级 (show processlist && show status)

5) 找到最需要优化的SQL后,可以开始跟踪分析单条SQL来获得更加底层实际的东 西,目前最好的三种方法是a)show profile b)show status c)slow query条目
a)show profile
SQL> set profiling=1;
SQL> select * from table;
SQL> show profiles;
SQL> show profile for query 1;
格式化输出:
SQL> set @query_id = 1;
SQL> SELECT STATE,SUM(DURATION) AS Total_R,
        ROUND(
       100*SUM(DURATION) /
         (SELECT SUM(DURATION)
           FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROFILING
           WHERE QUERY_ID = @query_id
             ), 2) AS Pct_R,
    COUNT(*) AS CallS,
        SUM(DURATION) / COUNT(*) AS "R/CALL"
     FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROFILING
     WHERE QUERY_ID = @query_id
     GROUP BY STATE
     ORDER BY Total_R DESC;

当然,通过show profile 可以知道时间主要花在什么地方,但是你不知道为什么 会花在那些地方?这是时候就必须要跟踪堆栈来找到进一步的原因了。

查看是否使用了磁盘临时表还是内存临时表:
flush status;
sql;
show status where variable_name like 'Handler%' or variable_name like 'Created%';

b) show status
SQL> 句柄计数器 handler counter,临时文件,表计数器
SQL>  flush status ; 刷新绘画级别的状态值。
SQL> select * from table;
SQL> show status where variable_name like 'Handler%' or Variable_name like 'Created%';  --可以看到是否利用了磁盘临时表,而explain是无法看到的。


6. 监控点  -- 通过监控状态数据可以发现哪些地方是异常的,然后再具体分析异 常时间点的日志。
a)show global status;   --开销比较低
b)show processlist | grep state;   或者使用innotop --开销比较低
c)slow query + pt-query-digest
d)show innoDB status;
e) vmstat
f) iostat


7. 关于索引统计
    发生过一件事情,show table status看到的大小100M,但是实际物理大小10G,通过这个发型索引统计有的时候非常不准确    
    这里简单介绍下:  

    innodb_stats_persistent=on ,  db重启后不会清空,不需要重新收集  
    innodb_stats_persistent=off, db重启后统计信息清空,需要重新收集统计  
    1、针对是否持久化统计信息mysql可以通过innodb_stats_persistent参数来控制  
  2、针对统计信息的时效性,mysql通过innodb_stats_auto_recalc参数来控制是否自动更新  
  3、针对统计信息的准确性,mysql通过innodb_stats_persistent_sample_pages 参数来控制更新  
    4、mysql通过analyze table 语句来手动的更新统计信息  
    5、mysql> select * from innodb_table_stats; last_update可以查看索引统计的最后更新时间    
    6、当索引统计不准确的时候,可以通过analyze table来更新索引统计信息,让执行计划更加准确。    
        如果这样做后,执行计划还是不准确,那么可以试图调大innodb_stats_persistent_sample_pages,让索引页收集的更加多,让执行计划更准确    


8. 关于索引选择性:  字段1 building_id,字段2 status  
    单索引字段的索引选择性: select count(distinct building_id)/count(*) as selectivity from community_units;     
    组合索引的索引选择性:   select count(distinct (concat(building_id,status)))/count(*) as selectivity from community_units;    
    组合前缀的索引选择性:   select count(distinct (concat(building_id,left(status,2))))/count(*) as selectivity from community_units;     
    得到的结果越接近1,效果越好     

cpu 模式调节

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/CPU_frequency_scaling

  • 有哪几种模式
Governor Description
ondemand Dynamically switch between CPU(s) available if at 95% cpu load
performance Run the cpu at max frequency
conservative Dynamically switch between CPU(s) available if at 75% load
powersave Run the cpu at the minimum frequency
userspace Run the cpu at user specified frequencies
  • 如何查看当前的cpu模式

cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_governor

  • 如何查看cpu支持哪几种模式

cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu2/cpufreq/scaling_available_governors

  • 如何设置
  1. bios里面设置
  2. os设置

NC 传送


传送文件
目的主机监听
nc -l 监听端口<未使用端口>  > 要接收的文件名
nc -l 4444 > cache.tar.gz
 
源主机发起请求
nc  目的主机ip    目的端口 < 要发送的文件
nc  192.168.0.85  4444 < /root/cache.tar.gz
=============================================

==传送文件夹==
接收方的命令:
nc -l ${ip} 4444 | tar xf -

传送方的命令:
tar -cvf - ppc_* | nc ${ip} 4444

rsync

核心算法:http://www.oschina.net/question/28_54213?fromerr=DHoiMICG  
小bug:如果rsync一段时间,突然不传了,且流量中断,不妨加上这个参数试试  /usr/bin/rsync --sockopts=SO_RCVBUF=10485760   

配置:/etc/rsyncd.conf
uid = root
gid = root
use chroot = no
max connections = 64
pid file = /var/run/rsyncd.pid
lock file = /var/run/rsync.lock
log file = /var/log/rsyncd.log

[dbbak]
path = /data/dbbackup
use chroot = no
ignore errors
read only = no
list = no

[Binlog]
path = /data/BINLOG_BACKUP
use chroot = no
ignore errors
read only = no
list = no

[fullbak]
path = /data/FULL_BACKUP
use chroot = no
ignore errors
read only = no
list = no    

启动: /usr/bin/rsync --daemon

限速100k/s传输 :
    /usr/bin/rsync -av --progress  --update --bwlimit=100 --checksum --compress  $file  root@$ip::dbbak

正常传输:
   /usr/bin/rsync -av --progress   $file  root@$ip::dbbak

pigz使用

  • 常用知识普及
错误的写法:nohup tar -cvf - xx_20151129 | pigz  -p 24 > xx_20151129.tar.gz & --一定不能加nohup,因为中间有管道符,不能传递下去的
错误的代价:
    tar: This does not look like a tar archive
    tar: Skipping to next header
    tar: Exiting with failure status due to previous errors
以上错误的案例中,为此付出过很大的代价,哭晕在厕所N次了...

正确的写法:  tar -cvf - xx_20151129 | pigz  -p 24 > xx_20151129.tar.gz &

  • 用法
* 压缩
tar cvf - 目录名 | pigz -9 -p 24 > file.tgz
pigz:用法-9是压缩比率比较大,-p是指定cpu的核数。

* 解压1
pigz -d file.tgz
tar -xf --format=posix file

* 解压2
tar xf file.tgz

axel & httpd 多线程数据传输

* axel 下载&安装
wget -c http://pkgs.repoforge.org/axel/axel-2.4-1.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh axel-2.4-1.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm

* axel 核心参数
-n   指定线程数
-o   指定另存为目录


* httpd服务搭建与配置

    yum install httpd

* httpd配置主目录
    /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

[xx html]# cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf | grep DocumentRoot
# DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
#DocumentRoot "/var/www/html" --注释
DocumentRoot "/data/dbbackup/html" --配置成容量大的地址

* 开启httpd服务

service httpd restart

* 下载数据
目的地ip shell> nohup axel -n 10 -v -o /data/dbbackup/ http://$数据源ip/xx_20151129.tar.gz &

git 基本

1. git add xx
2. git commit -m 'xx'
3. git pull
4. git push

如何模拟网络延迟或丢包

  • 模拟网络eth0 timeout 1000ms
tc qdisc add dev eth0 root netem delay 1000ms
  • 模拟网络eth0丢包率 10%
tc qdisc add dev eth0 root netem loss 10%
  • 删除以上tc命令导致的网络延迟或者丢包规则
tc qdisc del dev eth0 root

如何模拟网络故障

  • host1 网络断掉,只允许host2 访问
host1> iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s host2  -j ACCEPT
host1> iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0.0.0.0/0 -j DROP
  • host1 网络断掉,只允许host2的22端口访问
host1> iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s host2 --dport 22  -j ACCEPT
host1> iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0.0.0.0/0 -j DROP
  • 恢复host1 网络
host1> service iptables restart

ansible 基础知识

文档

官方: http://docs.ansible.com/
个人: http://sofar.blog.51cto.com/353572/1579894

基础用法

  • ssh互信
1) 不需要加入key,也能登陆到所有机器
2)前提是:
    ssh-add --mac本地,线下,将私钥加入到内存
    ssh -A root@xx ;  --会将私钥传送到远端机器
    ssh-add -L 查看下。 --查看私钥是否传送过来
  • yaml

- hosts: etl
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
        - shell: cat /home/mysql/xx.pl
        - copy: src=files/rsync dest=/usr/bin/
        - template: src=files/xx.pl dest=/home/mysql/

  • hosts
[test1]
10.x.x.x bak_dest_ip=10.y.y.y bak_source_port=xx

[etl]
10.x.x.x bak_dest_ip=10.y.y.y bak_source_port=xx
  • files
*.pl
*.file
  • 常用语法
* 命令中如果有管道等多种命令,需要用bash -c ,并且引号起来
* -T:ping延迟时间 -f:线程数 -i:后面接hosts文件,xx标签  -m:command 命令模式 -a:命令内容
ansible -T 2 -f 1 -i ./hosts etl -m command -a "bash -c 'cat /home/mysql/xx.pl |grep bin/rsync'"

* playbook方式跑ansible

ansible-playbook -i ./hosts rsync.yaml

网络流量诊断

  • tools
* ifstat

* iftop

iftop -nNP -i tunl1 —看出口流量
iftop -nNP —看看整体的

* 查看ip1 与 ip2 之间的流量

root@ip1> iftop -F $ip2/32     =============   iftop -F $P{ip}/32

* 如何查看一个机器上哪个端口占用的流量最大

1> iftop 进入界面
2> 按 N
3> 按 S

vim块操作

  • [选择] -> 在普通模式下按ctrl+v或者v进入块操作模式
v(小写)     按字符选择,选中按下V时光标所在的字符到当前光标所在字符间的内容  
V(大写)     按行选择  
[Ctrl]+V     选择矩形字符块  
  • [动作] -> 通过光标移动选中内容,可以进行ydp操作
y:复制选中内容到粘贴板  
d:删除选中内容  
p:用粘贴板里的内容替换选中的内容  
=:对齐选中内容  
对于矩阵字符块:[Shift] + i xxx [esc] :把xxx写到每一行的光标前面的位置  
  • [替换] -> 批量缩进或反缩进,类似于文本编辑器中的格式化
选中多行,按I(大写)进入插入模式,写入Tab,之后按ESC,即可完成批量缩进的功能  
也可以写入内容,到选中的每一行的光标位置  

TGW 接口

  • TGW相关问题
* 根据vip,vport,找到rsip(不需要固定key,因为不需要访问real-server)

wget -O- --post-data 'data={ "operator":"xx_DEV", "rulelist":[ { "vip":"'"$vip"'", "vport":'"$vport"', "protocol":"TCP" } ] }' "http://10.126.70.51/cgi-bin/fun_logic/bin/public_api/getrs.cgi"

* 将vip 从rsip下线(需要固定key,因为要访问real-server)

$del_rs=`wget -O- --post-data 'data={ "client_type" : "x'x_DB", "ignore_exist_error" : false, "operator" : "xx_DEV", "rs_type" : "linux_tunl", "need_setup_rs" : true, "op_type" : "'del'", "rule_list" : [ { "rule_group":[ { "vip":"'$vip'", "vport":'$vport', "protocol":"TCP" } ], "rs_os_type":"linux", "rs_list":[ { "rs_ip":"'$source_ip'", "rs_port":'$source_port', "rs_weight":100 } ] } ], "sync" : true }' 'http://xx/cgi-bin/fun_logic/bin/public_api/op_rs.cgi' 2>/dev/null`;


* 将vip 从rsip上线(需要固定key,因为要访问real-server)

$add_rs=`wget -O- --post-data 'data={ "client_type" : "xx_DB", "ignore_exist_error" : false, "operator" : "xx_DEV", "rs_type" : "linux_tunl", "need_setup_rs" : true, "op_type" : "'add'", "rule_list" : [ { "rule_group":[ { "vip":"'$vip'", "vport":'$vport', "protocol":"TCP" } ], "rs_os_type":"linux", "rs_list":[ { "rs_ip":"'$target_ip'", "rs_port":'$target_port', "rs_weight":100 } ] } ], "sync" : true }' 'http://xx/cgi-bin/fun_logic/bin/public_api/op_rs.cgi' 2>/dev/null`;

* 问题

其实TGW的接口会做两步操作:1,操作TGW server上的配置  2,操作real-server上的配置,这两步应该是原子操作。

> 假设:1 成功,2失败,那么就会导致tgw上的配置,请求均切换了,但是real-server却没做改变,导致两端出现问题。

临时解决方案:2失败了,那么手动执行2的操作。假设在TGW上执行的操作是del_rs,那么可以在read-server上执行  /usr/local/realserver/RS_TUNL0/etc/setup_rs.sh -c (将本地的rsip和vip直接的配置关系清理掉)

> 假设:1 没有执行,2 执行了,那么就会导致tgw上的配置没变,但是real-server的配置改变了,导致从tgw来的请求均在real-server上找不到,出现问题。

临时解决方案:2执行了,那么手动让2还原到没有执行的状态。假设在read-server上误清理掉相关rs配置(/usr/local/realserver/RS_TUNL0/etc/setup_rs.sh -c),那么可以调用add_rs 来恢复。
  • vip漂移脚本

* 位置: db_sys: /data/online/tools/tgw_vip_shift

usage:
    python vip_shift.py view --vip=$vip --vip_port=$vip_port
    python vip_shift.py del --vip=$vip --vip_port=$vip_port --src_ip=$src_ip --src_port=$src_port
    python vip_shift.py add --vip=$vip --vip_port=$vip_port --target_ip=$target_ip --target_port=$target_port
    python vip_shift.py change --vip=$vip --vip_port=$vip_port --src_ip=$src_ip --src_port=$src_port --target_ip=$target_ip --target_port=$target_port

       [-h] [--vip VIP] [--vip_port VIP_PORT] [--src_ip SRC_IP]
       [--src_port SRC_PORT] [--target_ip TARGET_IP]
       [--target_port TARGET_PORT] [-v VERBOSITY]
       {del,add,change,view}


SSH 如何跳过输入密码,只允许认证模式

ssh -o BatchMode=yes -o PasswordAuthentication=no root@ip 

如何永久清空一台机器上的history

* 立即清空里的history当前历史命令的记录 
    history -c

* 要求bash立即更新history文件
    history -w

nohup 失效的问题

  • 在secureCRT 或者 iterm2 等类似终端,使用nohup 执行命令,为啥退出后,后台执行的命令也就停止了?
* 错误的做法
1. nohup xx_cmd &
2. 点击左上角或者右上角的xx按钮退出
3. 然后发现,刚刚在后台的命令异常终止了

* 正确的做法
1. nohup xx_cmd &
2. 必须显示的 exit 退出shell,接下来,你想干嘛干嘛
3. 然后发现,刚刚在后台的命令,安然无恙,放心睡觉吧  

如何让iTerm2 tab页面显示从哪台机器上登陆过来的

sudo vi /bin/go

#!/bin/sh

if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
    echo "pleaes input ip"
else

    echo "go ==> ssh -A root@$1"
    echo  "\033]0;$1\007"
    ssh -A root@$1
#   ssh -A Keithlan@$堡垒机 -t "ssh root@xx"
fi

如何查看memcache/redis当前哪个链接数最多

ss | grep '$ip:$port' | awk '{print $5}' | awk -F ':' '{print $1}' | sort -nr | uniq -c | sort -nr

kibana简单语法

* 地址:http://opses.corp.anjuke.com/
* 注意:选择搜索的时间段,右上角
* filter: 
    语法: message:(+SQLSTATE +connection)    每个关键字用+号,不能有空格
* 选择log name:
    ops-user-userlog*
    ops-xinfang-userlog*
    ops-broker-userlog*
* 哪些关键字跟DB紧密相关
    SQLSTATE
    connection time out
    too many connection
    max_user_connections

定位系统问题的工具和方法

*  perf top -G : 当CPU性能出现问题的时候,使用最佳    --注意: 会卡住,导致linux宕机,小心 : http://blog.51cto.com/1152313/1767927
    [ ] perf record -g  --保留文件,稍后可以用 perf report分析  
        [ ] 如果需要分析某一个进程,可以加 -p , perf record -g -p $pid
    [ ] perf top -g 实时分析,不保留数据到文件
        [ ] 如果需要分析某一个进程,可以加 -p , perf top -g -p $pid
     
* pidstat 1 5 :分析cpu问题的好工具       

* dstat
* pstack : 当进程卡住的时候,使用效果最佳  
* ss -tnlp
* nstat
    1. 检查back_log 是否设置合理,如果不合理,那么就会看到很多如下信息,代表客户端的请求会connect timeout
        linux> nstat -a | grep -i 'drops\|Overflow'
        TcpExtListenOverflows           208539             0.0
        TcpExtListenDrops               236999             0.0
* top :
    1. top -Hp $pid
    2. top , 然后输入f,然后输入p和y , 就可以看到top显示中对了2列, p对应的是swap(查看swap的进程),y对应的是wchan(Sleeping in Function),很实用  

* gdb   https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/mechanical-sympathy/QbmpZxp6C64

    gdb -p $id
        info thread
            thread $id
                bt

* strace
    第一种: strace -o /data/dbbackup/strace.log  -fp $pid
    第二种: 跟踪某些具体的操作 strace -o /data/dbbackup/strace.log  -T -tt -f -e trace=read,open -p $pid

* other
    http://blog.donghao.org/2014/04/24/%E8%BF%BD%E8%B8%AAcpu%E8%B7%91%E6%BB%A1/  
    如果perf都用不了,可以尝试 echo t > /proc/sysrq-trigger , 然后dmesg 或者查看kernel日志
    如果上述方法还不行, 可以尝试  /proc/{pid}/wchan

atop的使用方法

查看历史的top

atop -r /var/log/atop/atop_20180906 -b 4:00 -e 5:00   --查看某台机器凌晨4点~5点的top日志, t 下一页,T 上一页

如何优化swap被占用的情况

  • 处理原则
1. 如果swap占用的内存比较小(500M以内),那么通过 swapoff -a && swapon -a 可以快速释放掉(此操作有风险,谨慎)    

2. 如果swap占用的内存比较大,则需要保证两点
    2.1 必须保证linux的空闲内存 大于 swap占用空间
    2.2 然后通过下面的方法找到占用swap最多的进程,优化处理进程,让其达到第一点后再释放swap  
  • 发现swap占用最多的进程
1. for i in $(ls /proc | grep "^[0-9]" | awk '$0>100'); do awk '/Swap:/{a=a+$2}END{print '"$i"',a/1024"M"}' /proc/$i/smaps;done| sort -k2nr | head

有些linux无法跑上面的程序,可参考下一条命令  

2. for i in $(ll /proc | awk '{print $9}' | grep "^[0-9]" | awk '$0>100'); do awk '/Swap:/{a=a+$2}END{print '"$i"',a/1024"M"}' /proc/$i/smaps;done| sort -k2nr | head
  • 查看机器有哪些服务
ss -tpnl
  • 如何是否os的cache
cat  /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
sync;sync;sync;
sync;sync;sync;
sync;sync;sync;

echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
sync;sync;sync;
sync;sync;sync;
echo 0 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
sync;sync;sync;
sync;sync;sync;
cat /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
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